Heat: Energy transferred from one object or substance to another due to a difference in temperature.
Temperature: Measure of average kinetic energy present in an object.
Enthalpy: the energy contained in chemical bonds that can be converted into heat.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Reaction: the enthalpy change when molar quantities of reactants in their normal states react to form products in their normal states under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation: the heat change that takes place when 1 mole of a substance is formed from its elements in their standard states.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion: The enthalpy change when one mole of a substance completely reacts under standard thermodynamic conditions.
Endothermic: A kind of reaction wherein more energy is required to break the reactant bonds than is given out when the products are formed. Because of this, more heat will be required so it absorbs heat from the surrounding.
Exothermic: A reaction wherein more energy is given out than what need be put in causing it to release heat to the surroundings.
Bond Energy: the energy required per mole of gaseous compound to break a particular bond to produce gaseous fragments.
Standard Enthalpy of Atomization: The change in enthalpy that occurs when one mole of a compound is converted into gaseous atoms. All bonds in the compound are broken in atomization and none are formed, so enthalpies of atomization are always positive.
Standard Enthalpy of Vaporization: The energy required to transform a substance from its liquid state to its vapor.
Lattice Enthalpy: measure of the strength of the electrostatic attraction between all the ions in a crystal structure.